पाठ 3 – सावर्ण्यम्

10 तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम्                                 1.1.9

Let two letters having the same place of articulation and that are uttered with the same effort in the mouth be called  सवर्ण with each other.

ऋलृवर्णयोर्मिथ: सावर्ण्यं वाच्यम्

कात्यायन however remarks,  “That the letters ऋ and लृ are सवर्ण of each other must be stated”. 

This form of expression viz., वाच्यम्, बोध्यम्, वक्तव्यम्, distinguishes the supplementary remarks of कात्यायन. They are called वार्तिक.

The purpose of a वार्तिक is understood as under:

“सूत्रे उक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वं”

                               Place of articulation (स्थानम्)

स्थानम् अच् <————हल्————>
कण्ठः क, ख, ग, घ, ङ विसर्जनीय
तालु च, छ, ज, झ, ञ
मूर्धा ट, ठ, ड, ढ, ण
दन्ताः लृ त, थ, द, ध, न
ओष्ठौ प, फ, ब, भ, म उपध्मानीय
नासिका (additional) ञ, म, ङ, ण, न
कण्ठतालु ए, ऎ
कण्ठोष्ठम् ओ, औ
दन्तोष्ठम्
जिह्वामूलम् जिह्वामूलीय
नासिका अनुस्वार

The effort of articulation is considered to be of two types: Internal (आभ्यन्तर) and external (बाह्य).

आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नचित्रम्

स्पृष्ट्म् ईषत्स्पृष्टम् विवृतम् ईषत्विवृतम् संवृतम्
क च ट त प अ  ए ह्रस्व ‘अ’ प्रयोगे
ख छ ठ थ फ इ  ओ
ग ज ड द ब उ  ऎ
घ झ ढ ध भ ऋ  ऑ ह्
ङ ञ ण न म लृ

बाह्यप्रयत्नविवेक:

विवार:, श्वास:, अघोष: संवार:,नादः, घोष: अल्पप्राण: महाप्राणः उदात्त:, अनुदात्तः, स्वरितः
क, ख, श ग, घ, ङ, य क, ग, ङ, य, अ, लृ ख, घ, श अ, ए
च, छ, ष ज, झ, ञ, ब च, ज, ञ, ब, इ, ए छ, झ, ष इ, ओ
ट, ठ, स ड, ढ, ण, र ट, ड, ण, र, उ, ओ ठ, ढ, स उ, ऎ
त, थ द, ध, न, ल त, द, न, ल, ऋ, ऎ थ, ध, ह ऋ, औ
प, फ ब, भ, म, ह प, ब, म,       ऑ फ, भ लृ

सर्वेषां वर्णानां प्रत्येकं चत्वारो बाह्यप्रयत्न:

11 अणुदित् सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय:                 1.1.69

अनुवृत्ति –  स्वं रूपं

अण् प्रत्याहारः उदित् च सवर्णस्य ग्राहको भवति, स्वस्य च रूपस्य, प्रत्ययं वर्जयित्वा। अत्र अण् परेण णकारेण गृह्यते ।

Let a letter, denoted by the प्रत्याहार अण्, where it is an operand (and not a प्रत्यय) and similarly, a letter followed by a  ‘उ’ (उदित्), denote all its सवर्ण letters too.

कु, चु, टु, तु, पु are called उदित् .

कु represents क, ख, ग, घ and ङ. Likewise,

चु represents च, छ, ज, झ, ञ

टु represents ट, ठ, ड, ढ, ण

तु represents त, थ, द, ध, न

पु represents प, फ, ब, भ, म

अ represents 18 varieties. Likewise, इ and उ.

ऋ represents 30 varieties (its own 18 and 12 of लृ)

Similarly, लृ represents 30 varieties (its own 12 and 18 of ऋ )

ए, ऎ, ओ, औ represent 12 varieties each.

Through the distinction of nasal and non-nasal, य, व, ल are twofold. By this sutra, the non-nasal form of each implies both (nasal and non-nasal).

12 पर: सन्निकर्ष: संहिता                           1.4.109

Let the closest proximity of letters be called संहिता. This is nothing but संधि in ordinary usage.

13 हलोऽनन्तरा: संयोगः                       1.1.7

Let consonants unseparated by vowels be called संयोग or conjunct consonants.

14 सुप्तिङन्तम् पदम्                          1.4.14

Let a term ending in सुप् or in तिङ् be called a पद.

सुप् (#137) is a noun ending and तिङ्  (#408) is verb ending. पद is essentially something which is inflected or conjugated.

Thus ends the section on definitions.

इति सँज्ञाप्रकरणम्

 

 

4 Responses to पाठ 3 – सावर्ण्यम्

  1. Is nipata also called an avyaya or indeclinable?

  2. Srinivasa says:

    It is preferable to understand some of these terms as connoting membership in a list. Thus for our purposes in सन्धिप्रकरणम्, चादि members when not denoting a substance (असत्त्वे) and प्रादि members are all निपात.

    अव्यय is a bigger category than निपात. You can check out 1.1.37 and other references to अव्यय in the A (अष्टाध्यायी). A precis is available in Kale’s Grammar too.

  3. nipata is a particle
    avyaya is an indeclinable
    but ‘ca’ being an avyaya ,could also be a nipata when they do not signify substances
    and, ‘pra’ is generally designated as upasarga (prepositions)when it is with a verb again ‘pra’ could also be a nipata when they do not signify substance

  4. Maximus says:

    I would like to see a continuation of the topic

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: